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Dessert grapes

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Foliar fertilization of table grapes

In the pip-, stone- and berry fruit cultivation the foliar fertilization is a fixed component in the general complex of the nutrition for decades. The foliar fertilization in the wine-growing is, on the contrary, - up to iron and magnesium - still an orphan. . The foliar fertilization is chosen first of all if already visible deficiency symptoms have appeared (e.g., with manganese, iron, but also with magnesium etc). Even a latent lack should be repaired.

This can be perceived with a foliar analysis. Since 2000, modifications in the wine laws allow  that in Germany table grapes can also be cultivated. The cultivation has contributed to the fact that today a variety of table grapes is offered which grow extremely well in our climate and produce good qualities.

 

Nutrient availability

Even if the soil  is supplied optimally with nutrients, the need-based care of the grape with major, secondary- and trace elements is not always guaranteed. Many factors limit the availability and admission from the soil, e.g., high pH values with trace elements and low pH values with major elements and secondary elements, aridity, cold  weather, soil compressions and / or waterlogging, competition by greenings and antagonisms (reciprocal effects) between the elements (eg. too much of potassium limits the availability and admission of magnesium and calcium).

Special nutrient demands of table grapes

In general table grapes grow faster than wine grapes. So they need higher nutrient supply. Besides the major nutrients and magnesium, the trace elements iron and boron play an important role in the table grape cultivation.

Yield stabilization

The nutrition with amino acids together with the auxine effect of certain amino acids is particularly important for flourish stability, fruit setting and an even maturity.  Here boron also plays an important role. With the application of Aminosol® plus Lebosol®-Robustus SC (boron + calcium) before blossom, the berry setting and -growth and the trickling which leads to small berries or to loose grapes, is reduced.

Saccharification

Potassium promotes the saccharification and improves the maturity of wood and the frost hardness. With severe potassium lacks the leaves of the grape zone can become dry in July or August, a bad wood maturity as well as raised winter frost susceptibility are the consequence. The hydrologic balance is disturbed, and it comes to withers appearances. A delaid grape maturity and the shrinking of berries leads to a quality reduction. In this case treatments with  Lebosol®-Kalium 450 are preventive.

Iron chloroses

Iron chloroses

A frequently occurring physiological disturbance is the iron chlorose. This is usually not a “real” lack, but it is a disturbed iron admission. Iron deficiency appears by yellowness of the youngest leaves with dark veins and appears frequently with waterlogging and high pH values. Near culture-technical actions (soil structure, hydrologic balance, greenings, pH value etc) and the iron fertilization via soil  at vegetation beginning, the possibility exists, to improve the foliar iron supply. Here the early and regular foliar fertilization with Lebosol®-Eisen-Citrat GOLD puts things right. Lebosol®-Eisen-Citrat GOLD is a particularly compatible iron foliar fertilizer which contains manganese as well as iron. There is very often a lack of manganese and iron at the same time, so this combination presents itself as a foliar fertilizer. To improve the distribution of iron on and in the leaf, Aminosol®  is contained in the product, too.

Stalk paralysis

Magnesium deficiency appears particularly in young cultivations. Magnesium deficiency appears by yellow and brown leaves which wilt and die. But also yield grounds are concerned with an unfavorable K-/Mg - relation. The sensitivity for stalk paralysis is thereby increased. Stalk paralysis is a physiological disturbance of the grape. That means a disturbance of the cell structure of the grape stalks. Such affected grapes cease the ripening process and that will lead to quantity- and also quality losses. Leaf treatments with the fluid, particularly compatible Lebosol®-Magnesium 400 SC prevents stalk paralysis.

Stalk paralysis

Skin firmness of berries, resistance against Botrytis

Calcium is an essential component of the construction of the cell wall and thereby improves the firmness of the berries.Treatments with Lebosol®-Calcium-Forte SC (calcium formiate as a particularly compatible calcium source) raise the calcium content in the fruit and  improve firmness and storability of the grapes. By a firmer skin the burst and predisposition for Botrytis can be reduced.

Hair game

Aminosol® is gained out of animal protein from the food production. This protein is altered on a enzymic basis into amino acids. This creates the typical Aminosol® smell. Hair game perceives this smell  far more intensely and  feels much more unpleasant than human beings. . Therefore, hair game avoids locations which are treated with Aminosol® arrangement and diverts to untreated locations.

 

Main recommendations

Aim/Problem Recommendation Time
Improvement in effectiveness and tolerability of plant protection products 150 - 300 ml Aminosol® (per 100 l spray water) With plant protection products
Strengthening of inflorescences, yield 2 - 3 times 2 - 3 l/ha Phytoamin® 3-leaf stage to pea size
Vitalisation and resilience 2 - 4 times 0,25 - 0,75 l/ha Lebosol®-Kupfer 350 SC 3-leaf stage to when majority of berries are touching
Vitalisation, improvement in the photosynthesis rate and resilience 4 - 6 times 3 - 4 l/ha Lebosol®-Schwefel 800 SCor4 - 6 times 4 - 6 l/ha VITALoSol® GOLD SC 3-leaf stage to when majority of berries are touching
Prevention and alleviation of iron chlorosis, improvement in water transport, leaf quality 2 - 5 times 3 - 7 l/ha Lebosol®-Eisen-Citrat GOLD 3-leaf stage to harvesting
Increasing stress tolerance 2 - 3 l/ha Aminosol® 5-leaf stage at stressed sites
Initial development, vitality, energy and water balance, N efficiency 2 times 6 - 8 l/ha Lebosol®-PK-Max 5-leaf stage to beginning of flowering
Improvement in leaf quality, photosynthesis rate, N efficiency 2 - 4 times 1 l/ha Lebosol®-Mangan GOLD SC Inflorescences visible
Improvement in flowering quality, fruit set, calcium transport, fruit quality 2 times 2 l/ha Lebosol®-Robustus SC +
2 times 0,25 l/ha Lebosol®-Zink 700 SC
Enlargement of the inflorescences to the beginning of flowering
Boosting of resistance to illness 2 - 5 times 2 - 4 l/ha Lebosol®-Magnesium-Plus Pre-bloom to pea size
Leaf quality, chlorophyll, photosynthesis rate, prevention of berry shrivel 2 - 5 times 3 - 5 l/ha Lebosol®-Magnesium 400 SC At post-bloom until majority of berries are touching
Increase in fruit firmness, storage stability and resilience 3 times 6 l/ha Lebosol®-Calcium-Forte SC Pea size to harvesting
Sugar formation, wood maturation, quality, winter hardiness 2 times 5 l/ha Lebosol®-Kalium 450 +
2 times 1 l/ha Lebosol®-AqueBor SC
From when the majority of berries are touching to harvesting
Treated crops are avoided by furred game 2 l Aminosol® (With 2 l water 2 - 3 days beforehand (quantity for 1 ha)) When required