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Pome fruit

Foliar fertilization in fruit cultivation

In the fruit cultivation the foliar fertilization is since decades already a fixed component in the general complex of the nutrition. The foliar fertilization is already used in case of visible deficiency symptoms (e.g., with manganese, iron, magnesium etc), and  also with latent (not visible) lack.

The leaf analysis has proved itself as an aid in order to recognize a latent nutrient lack.


Nutrient availability

Even if the soil is supplied optimally with nutrients, the adequate care of the fruit-tree with major-, secondary- and trace elements is not always verified . Many factors limit the availability and admission from the soil, e.g., high pH values with trace elements and low pH values with major-  and secondary elements, aridity, 

cold weather, soil compressions and / or waterlogging, competition by greenings and antagonisms (interactions) between the elements (e.g. too much of potassium limits the availability and admission of magnesium and calcium).

Special nutrient demands with pip fruits

In the range of the plants nutrition the apple has more claims than the pear. With the apple elements like nitrogen (to the achievement of a high yield), potassium and phosphorus (for a optimal coloring with good fruit quality), the creation of a positive potassium-calcium relation for solid fruits and a balanced care with magnesium and manganese plays an important role for the avoidance of leaf spots. However, the pear is more susceptible for iron chloroses.

Leaf spots and premature leaf fall

Some sorts, particularly Gold Delicious, Jonagold, Elstar, Gala and Cox tend to nutritional-physiological conditional leaf nectrosis and premature leaf fall. The reasons for this are, among other things, an undersupply with manganese and magnesium. The combination of Lebosol®-Magnesium 400 SC with Lebosol®-Manganese 500 SC eases the symptoms and reduces the premature leaf fall.

Manganese-deficiency

Calcium-deficiency

Flourish quality, fruit setting, skin quality

Boron in combination with calcium (in Lebosol®-Robustus SC), zinc (Lebosol®-Zinc 700 SC) and amino acids (Aminosol®) have a positive influence on pollen tube growth, flourish, fruit asetting and diminish the russeting. In this combination they can brought out before the flourish or after the harvest. In addition, the application of Lebosol®-Robustus SC before flourish leads to a better coloration of the apples. In Addition boron and zinc promote, the calcium admission.

Coloration

Phosphorus and potassium have a positive effect on the coloration of the fruit, so that the red opaque color is promoted with several foliar fertilizations with Lebosol®-PK-Max  from the time of fruit setting. At the same moment phosphorus contributes to a better fruit firmness and less cold and internal breakdown.

Manganese is responsible for the green background color, so it can be improved with Lebosol®-Mangan GOLD SC in two-color varieties.

Iron chlorosis

Particularly pears lightly (easily) incline to iron chloroses. Iron deficiency appears by yellowness of the youngest leaves with dark veins. Here the early and regular foliar fertilization with Lebosol®-Eisen-Citrat GOLD puts things right.

Main recommendations

Aim/Problem Recommendation Time
Improvement in effectiveness and tolerability of plant protection products and calcium fertilisers 150 - 300 ml Aminosol® (per 100 l spray water) With plant protection products and calcium fertilisers
Promotion of fruit set, fruit size and colouration, minimisation of russeting 2 times 5 - 7,5 l/ha Aminosol® In apples: first pink and full pink stage; pears: before and after flowering
Improvement in flowering quality, fruit set, calcium transport, fruit quality, colouration 2 times 2 l/ha Lebosol®-Robustus SC +
2 times 0,25 l/ha Lebosol®-Zink 700 SC
First pink to beginning of flowering
Boosting of resistance to illness 2 - 4 times 2 - 4 l/ha Lebosol®-Kalium-Plus First pink to June fruit drop
Vitalisation, improvement in the photosynthesis rate and resilience 4 times 4 - 6 l/ha VITALoSol® GOLD SC First pink, full pink stage, hazelnut size, walnut size
Boosting of the restistance of the flowers to frost, yield 1 - 2 times 2 l/ha Aminosol® +
1 - 2 times 1 l/ha Lebosol®-Robustus SC +
1 - 2 times 5 l/ha Lebosol®-Kalium 450
From first pink before frost
Strengthening of flower buds, yield 4 times 5 - 7,5 l/ha Phytoamin® Full bloom, end of flowering, shortly after flowering, hazelnut size
Improvement in leaf quality, photosynthesis rate, N efficiency 2 - 4 times 1 l/ha Lebosol®-Mangan GOLD SC From the end of flowering to June fruit drop
Increasing stress tolerance 2 - 3 l/ha Aminosol® End of flowering to harvesting, at stressed sites
Increase in fruit firmness, storage stability and resilience 4 - 6 time 5 - 8 l/ha Lebosol®-Calcium-Forte SC End of flowering to harvesting
Prevention and alleviation of iron chlorosis, improvement in water transport, leaf quality 2 - 5 times 3 - 7 l/ha Lebosol®-Eisen-Citrat GOLD End of flowering to harvesting
To prevent premature leaf drop; increased vitality, leaf quality, photosynthesis rate 2 - 4 times 3 - 5 l/ha Lebosol®-Magnesium 400 SC End of flowering to harvesting
Improvement in skin quality, calcium transport, flower bud quality 2 times 2 l/ha Lebosol®-Robustus SC +
2 times 0,25 l/ha Lebosol®-Zink 700 SC
Fruit set to harvesting
Promotion of green background colour 2 - 4 times 1 l/ha Lebosol®-Mangan GOLD SC Between June fruit drop and harvesting
Promotion of red top colour, fruit size, fruit firmness 2 - 4 times 5 l/ha Lebosol®-Kalium 450or2 - 4 times 6 - 8 l/ha Lebosol®-PK-Max Between June fruit drop and harvesting
Depositing of reserve substances, regeneration, winter hardiness, flower quality 2 times 1 l/ha Lebosol®-AqueBor SC +
2 times 2 - 3 l/ha Aminosol® +
2 times 0,5 l/ha Lebosol®-Zink 700 SC
After harvesting
Treated crops are avoided by furred game 2 l Aminosol® (With 2 l water 2 - 3 days beforehand (quantity for 1 ha)) When required