en
Merkliste Icon 0

Wine grapes

PDF

Foliar fertilization of wine grapes

In the pip-, stone- and berry fruit cultivation the foliar fertilization is for decades a fixed component in the general complex of nutrition. In viticulture the foliar fertilization – except iron and magnesium – is still an orphan.
The sheet fertilization is primarily selected if already visible deficiency symptoms have appeared (e.g. with manganese, iron, but also with magnesium etc). But also a latent lack (not visible) should be cured. This can be detected by using a leaf analysis.

Availability of nutrients

Even if the soil is supplied optimally with nutrients, an adequate supply of the vine with major-, secondary- and trace elements is not always guaranteed. Many factors limit the availability and admission from the soil, e.g., high pH values of trace elements and low pH values of major- and secondary elements, aridity, cold weather, soil compressions and / or waterlogging, competition of soil greenings and antagonisms (interactions) between the elements (e.g. a too much of potassium limits the availability and admission of magnesium and calcium).

Special nutrient demands of  wine grapes

Among other things, the must quality is affected by the time of vintage (sugar / acid balance in the grapes).  However, the even physiological maturity of the grapes already plays an important role in addition. This depends on the existence of boron and zinc which are guaranteed by the flourish and fruit setting for a short period. A good photosynthesis during the season is affected positively by iron and magnesium.  For a correct nutrient balance during the season  special attention must be paid to magnesium and potassium. Healthy and firm grapes are promoted by calcium.

Yield stabilization

The nutrition with amino acids together with the effects of auxin is particularly important for flourish stability, fruit setting and an even maturity. Here boron plays also an important role. With the application of Aminosol® plus Lebosol ®-Robustus SC (boron + calcium) before flourish the berry disposition and berry growth are improved and an evenly maturity is promoted. Moreover, the cell walls are stabilized by an early calcium supply.

Iron chloroses

A commonly occuring physiological disturbance is the iron chlorosis. This is usually not a “real” lack, but it is a disturbed iron admission. Iron deficiency appears by yellowness of the youngest leaves with dark veins and appears frequently with waterlogging and high pH values. In addition to culture-technical measures (soil structure, hydrologic balance, planting of greening, pH value etc) and the soil supply of iron fertilizers at the beginning of vegetation, there is also the possibility to improve the iron supply via leaf. Here the early and regular foliar fertilization with Lebosol®-Eisen-Citrat GOLD provides a remedy. Lebosol®-Eisen-Citrat GOLD is a particularly compatible foliar iron fertilizer which contains manganese and iron. There is very often a lack of manganese and iron at the same time, so this combination presents itself as a foliar fertilizer. To improve the distribution of iron on and in the leaf, amino acids are contained in the product, too.

Iron chloroses

Magnesium-deficiency

Resistance and vitality

In practice the application of phosphonats  has proved itself particularly in viticulture since many years. From preflourish to pea size several applications of Lebosol®-Kalium-Plus or Lebosol®-Magnesium-Plus support in combination with contact fungicides the plant resistance, leaf quality and  -health. By increased formation of phytoalexins, cell wall thickening and lively enzyme synthesis the plant becomes less susceptible for an infestation with fungi, e.g. the type Peronospora (downy mildew).

Stalk paralysis

Preferably in young cultivations a magnesium lack can appear early. A magnesium lack appears with yellow and brown leaves, which wilt and die. But also profitable cultivations are affected by an unfavorable C/Mg relation. Therefore the sensitivity for stalk paralysis is increased. Stalk paralysis is a physiological disturbance of the vine. It appears in a disturbance of the cell structure of the grape-stalk. Such affected grapes stop further ripening processes,that will lead to quantity losses and also to strong quality losses. Foliar treatments with the fluid, particularly compatible Lebosol®-Magnesium 400 SC prevent stalk paralysis. As sulphur is also undersupplied in the last years, the combined application of magnesium + sulphur with Lebosol®-MagSOFT SC is an alternative.

Stalk paralysis

Grape Skin firmness, resistance against Botrytis

Calcium is an essential component of the construction of the cell wall. Treatments with Lebosol®-Calcium-Forte SC (calcium formiat as particularly compatible calcium source) raise the calcium content in the fruit and thereby improve the firmness of the berries. By a firmer berry skin the bursting is reduced and therefore also the predisposition to Botrytis.

Saccharification

Potassium promotes the saccharification and improves the mature of wood and therefore also the frost hardness.

With a serious potassium lack the leaves of the grape zone can become dry in July or August, a bad wood maturity as well as raised winter frost susceptibility are the consequence. The hydrologic balance is disturbed, wilting foliages will occur. By sustained grape maturity and shrinking of the berries it comes to a reduction in quality. Treatments with Lebosol®-Kalium 450 prevent this reduction and are also suitable for a fast recovery of a potassium lack via leaf.

Potassium-deficiency

Hair game

Aminosol® is gained out of animal protein from the food production. This protein is altered on a enzymic basis into amino acids. This creates the typical Aminosol® smell. Hair game perceives this smell  far more intensely and  feels much more unpleasant than human beings. Therefore, hair game avoids locations which are treated with Aminosol® arrangement and diverts to untreated locations.

Root formation and increase in grapevine nurseries

On account of its unique composition Aminosol® is suitable to take an influence on the hormone budget of the plants in plants-physiological important phases. The amino acids and phytohormons in Aminosol® promote the cell division as well as the root growth and so a better growth.

Plant protection with seaweeds

Phytoamin® - a cold pressed seaweed juice - improves not only the resistance against diseases, but also contributes to the stabilization of the vines, increases the assimilation performances and improves therefore the grape- and wine quality.

Main recommendations

Aim/Problem Recommendation Time
Improvement in effectiveness and tolerability of plant protection products 150 - 300 ml Aminosol® (per 100 l spray water) With plant protection products
Strengthening of inflorescences, yield 2 - 3 times 2 - 3 l/ha Phytoamin® 3-leaf stage to pea size
Vitalisation and resilience 2 - 4 times 0,25 - 0,75 l/ha Lebosol®-Kupfer 350 SC 3-leaf stage to when majority of berries are touching
Vitalisation, improvement in the photosynthesis rate and resilience 4 - 6 times 3 - 4 l/ha Lebosol®-Schwefel 800 SCor4 - 6 times 4 - 6 l/ha VITALoSol® GOLD SC 3-leaf stage to when majority of berries are touching
Prevention and alleviation of iron chlorosis, improvement in water transport, leaf quality 2 - 5 times 3 - 7 l/ha Lebosol®-Eisen-Citrat GOLD 3-leaf stage to harvesting
Even development, uniform maturity, quality, increase in stress tolerance 4 - 5 times 3 - 5 l/ha Aminosol® 5-leaf-stage, at full bloom, at post-bloom, when majority of berries are touching, stress
Initial development, vitality, energy and water balance, N efficiency 2 times 6 - 8 l/ha Lebosol®-PK-Max 5-leaf stage to beginning of flowering
Improvement in leaf quality, photosynthesis rate, N efficiency 2 - 4 times 1 l/ha Lebosol®-Mangan GOLD SC Inflorescences visible
Improvement in flowering quality, fruit set, calcium transport, fruit quality 2 times 2 l/ha Lebosol®-Robustus SC +
2 times 0,25 l/ha Lebosol®-Zink 700 SC
Enlargement of the inflorescences to the beginning of flowering
Boosting of resistance to illness 2 - 5 times 2 - 4 l/ha Lebosol®-Magnesium-Plus Pre-bloom to pea size
Leaf quality, chlorophyll, photosynthesis rate, prevention of berry shrivel 2 - 5 times 3 - 5 l/ha Lebosol®-Magnesium 400 SC At post-bloom until majority of berries are touching
Increase in fruit firmness and resistance to botrytis 3 - 4 times 3 - 5 l/ha Lebosol®-Magphosor3 - 4 times 4 - 6 l/ha Lebosol®-Calcium-Forte SC Post-bloom to one month before harvesting
Sugar formation, wood maturation, quality, winter hardiness 2 times 1 l/ha Lebosol®-AqueBor SC +
2 times 5 l/ha Lebosol®-Kalium 450
From when the majority of berries are touching to harvesting
Treated crops are avoided by furred game 2 l Aminosol® (With 2 l water 2 - 3 days beforehand (quantity for 1 ha)) When required